(Northumberland), Ayle Burn (Northumberland) Br. *Alünā,
often rendered as Alauna in British Latin, with an
uncertain meaning, perhaps from PIE. *ala 'water'.
||(Borders) Nicolaisen derives this
name from *Adarā or *Adarjā from a PIE. root
meaning 'water course'.
||A common name in Cumbria and
Scotland from Br. *caleto- 'hard' and *dubro-
'water' (W. caletwr).
||(Cumbria) Br. *cambāco- 'crooked', changed by later
association with ON. bekkr 'stream'.
||(Cumbria) Br. *cucrā 'crooked' (G. cuar
||(Cumbria) Br. *cracjo- 'rocky' (W.
craig 'rock'). Also Crayke in Yorkshire.
||(Cumbria) Br. *dacrū 'tear' (W. deigr).
||(Cumbria) Br. *Derwentjō 'oak river' (W. derw).
There was a Roman fort called Derventio
at Papcastle. Possibly the
Derwenydd mentioned in the early poem Pais Dinogad.
||(Cumbria), Eden Water
(Borders) Br. *Itunā,
written Itouna by Ptolemy. The meaning is obscure, but
the name occurs elsewhere in northern England, in Scotland and
in Wales as Afon Eden.
||(Cumbria) Uncertain, but the equivalent of
C. yeyn, B. yen 'cold' has been suggested.
Ale Water. The Roman fort of Alauna
was situated above the river at Maryport.
||(Cumbria) Br. *iscā 'water'. There are several
rivers of this name in Cumbria and Scotland.
||(Cumbria) Ekwall refers this to O.I.
geilt 'mad, wild' or W. gwyllt (fem. gwellt),
which are both from PC. *gʷeltis
(: E. wild). The first is probably preferable, since
Br. w- does not usually appear as g- in early
(Northumberland) From Br. *Glanjo, Glanjā from
the stem meaning 'clean, pure, sacred' (W. glan 'clean,
||(Cumbria) The first elements are probably
Br. *glinnos, glennos 'valley' (W. glyn) and
*dubro- 'water' (W. dŵr).
The latter elements are obscure.
||(Cumbria) Possible British, Ekwall suggests
a connection with W. ir 'fresh, green', but also O.E.
||(Cumbria) Ekwall calls this 'a Brit[ish]
river-name, but offers no explanation. Early forms are
Irthin, Irthing, Erthina and Erthing. Perhaps
related to the R. Irt.
||(Borders) From the Br. *kal-
'hard' (W. caled 'hard').
||(Cumbria) Br. *Cunētjō,
which occurs elsewhere in England (e.g. the Kennet) and in Wales
||(Cumbria) Br. *limnā 'smooth' (W. llyfn).
Another relatively common name in the region.
||(Cumbria) Probably Br. *lowatro-,
related to B. laouer 'trough', OI lóathar
'trough' and Gaulish lautro 'bath'.
||(Cumbria) Identified with Llwyfenydd,
the courtly home of the kings of Rheged in the hengerdd
of Taliesin. If this is correct, the origin would be Br. *lēmanjō 'elm river' (W. llwyf, cf.
||(Cumbria) Ekwall equates the River, recorded
as Meran in 1282, with nearby Mockerkin Tarn, which was
called Ternmeran in 1343. The latter is apparently an
inversion compound with the Br. male name *Mariānos
Mariānus (cf. W. Meirion in Meirionydd 'Merioneth').
||(Cumbria) A British name from the PIE. root
*mim- 'to make a sound'
||(Cumbria) Ekwall says
this is a British name,
but gives no explanation.
||(Cumbria) Pow occurs in Cumbria and
Scotland and refers to a stream, particularly a slow-moving one.
It may come directly from British (cf. W. pwll, C.
poll, B. poull 'pool'), but O.E. pōl
'pool' has side forms poll
and pull, perhaps influenced by British *pull
and Gaelic poll.
||(Borders) An ancient name, perhaps
related to Ptolemy's Touésis 'the Spey' which is
derived from the PIE. root *tevā 'to swell, be
powerful'. There is apparently a PC. root *tew(j)o-
||(Cumbria) Gospatric's Writ (c.1060) has
a Celtic inversion compound with O.N. vaðill
'ford'. Poll may be British or Gaelic.
||(East Lothian, Borders) (see
(Lancashire) Br. garwo- 'rough' (W. garw).