Annales Cambriae

The Annales Cambriae 'Annals of Wales' is an early medieval record of events in Britain between c.450 and c.995 (with some later additions). It is believed that the section from ad 613-777 is partly or largely derived from a work of northern origin, so is of particular interest to the study of the Old North.

There are several copies of the manuscript. The text below is largely translated from MS A., with some additions made from MSS. B and C given in brackets. 

Notes from the Annales

457 Saint Patrick was carried to the Lord.
516 The Battle of Badon [Bellum Badonis] in which Arthur bore the cross of Our Lord Jesus Christ for three days and three nights on his shoulders,* and the Britons were victorious.
  * This is probably an early mistranslation in which W. ysgwyd 'shield' was taken to be ysgwydd 'shoulder', no doubt a mistake influenced by the image of Christ carrying his own cross.
537 The Battle of Camlann [Gueith Camlann] in which Arthur and Modred [Medraut] fell; and there was mortality in Britain and Ireland.
573 The Battle of Arfderydd* (between the sons of Eliffer [Elifer] and Gwenddoleu [Guendoleu] son of Ceidio [Keidiau]; in which battle Gwenddoleu fell. Merlin [Merlinus] is made insane).
  * variously spelled Bellum Armterid / Erderit / Arderit.
580 Gwrgi1 and Peredur2 (sons of Eliffer) die.
  1. Guurci / Gurgi.  2. Peretur
595 King Dunod* dies.
  * Dunaut / Dunaud / Dunauut son of Pabo (Pabo Post Prydain)
607 Áedán son of Gabrán* dies.
  *Aidan map Gabran / filius Gawran (king of Dál Riada)
612 Kentigern [Conthigirni / Chendeirn] dies
613 The Battle of Chester [Gueith Cair Legion], and there Selim son of Cinan fell. And Iacob son of Beli slept.*
  * also: (B) "Bellum Kairlion, in which Seysil son of Chinan et Iacob son of Beli died."; (C) "Bellum Caer Legion, in which Silla son of Kenan fell."
617 Edwin* begins to reign.
  *Etguin / Guin. (king of Deira)
626 Edwin1 is baptized; and Rhun2 son of Urien3 baptized him.4
  1. Etguin. 2. Run. 3. Urbgen (king of Rheged). 4. MS B. says that Paulinus, Bishop of York [Paulino episcopo Eboracensi] baptized Edwin. This disagreement also occurs between Bede and Nennius.
627 Beli* dies.
  *Belin, this may be Beli ap Neithon, king of Al Clud.
630 The Battle of Meiceren;1 and there Edwin2 is destroyed with two of his sons; while Cadwallon3 was the victor.
  1. Gueith Meiceren / Bellum Meigen, known as the Battle of Hatfield Chase in English. 2. Etguin / Edwinus. 3. Catguollaaun / Catwallaun.
631 The Battle of Cantscaul, in which Cadwallon [Catguollan] fell.
644 The Battle of Cocboy,1 in which Oswald, king of Northumbria,2 and Eowa,3 king of Mercia4 died.
  1. also Chochui. 2. Nordorum / Nodorum. 3. Eoba / Edda. 4. Merciorum
658 Oswy* came and led the plunder.
  *Osguid / Oswid (Northumbria).
665 The first Easter which the Saxons celebrated. The second Battle of Badon [Bellum Badonis]. Morgan [Morcant] dies.
669 Oswy,* king of the Saxons, dies.
*Osguid / Oswid (Northumbria).
704 Ealdfrith,* king of the Saxons, dies.
  *Alchfrid / Aelfrid / Adelstan (Northumbria).
717 Osred,* king of the Saxons, dies.
  *Osbrit /Osfrit (Northumbria).
722 Beli son of Elffin* dies
  *Elfin / Elphini / Elphin (Al Clud).
735 Bede [Beda] the priest dies.
736 Eógan,* king of the Picts, dies.
  *Ougen / Owinus / Oweyn
750 War between the Picts and the Britons, that is the Battle of Mugdock,1 and their king Talorc2 was killed by the Britons. Tewdwr son of Beli3 died.
  1. gueith Mocetauc. 2. Talargan.  3. Teudubr filius Beli / Teudur filius Beli / Teudubr ab Heli (Al Clud)
745 Rhodri,* king of the Britons, dies.
  *Rotri / Rodri (Al Clud).
760 War between the Britons and Saxons, that is the Battle of Hereford,1 and Dyfnwal2 son of Tewdwr3 dies.
  1. Hirford. 2. Dunagual / Denawal. 3. Teudubr / Teudur (Al Clud).
776 Cináed,* king of the Picts, dies
  *Cemoyd / Chemoith
777 Abbot Cuthbert* dies
  *Cudberth / Cubertus / Cudbertus
856 Cináed,* king of the Picts, dies
  *Cemoyth / Ceinod
866 The city of York1 is laid waste; it is the Battle of the Black Lake.2
  1. Urbs Ebrauc / Ebrauci.  2. cat Dub gint / Cat Du lin (this may mean the Battle of Dublin)
869 The stronghold of Dumbarton Rock is destroyed by pagans.
  "Arx Alt-Clut a gentilibus fracta est."
946 And Strathclyde [Strat Clut] is laid waste by the Saxons.
1014 Owain1 son of Dyfnwal2 is killed.
  1. Owinus, Owen the Bald of Strathclyde. 2. Dunawal